Coherence and Cohesion: Unterschied zwischen den Versionen

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== Coherence and Cohesion - Was ist das? ==
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Wie schon kurz erklärt, soll ein Text inhaltlich zusammenpassen. Einzelne Sätze werden durch linking words (Konjunktionen) miteinander verbunden.
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Wer immer wieder zwar sprachlich richtige, aber (zu) kurze Sätze nach dem Muster [[Englisch/Grammatik/Word_Order|S - V - O]] erstellt, ohne diese sinnvoll zu verbinden, bekommt in diesem Teil nur wenige Punkte.
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=== How to use linking words ===
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''Last week. It was a sunny Sunday. A sky without any clouds. The perfect weather for an amazing and two hours taking open-air-concert of “The Rising Son of New Orleans”.''
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''I had checked my bag. Camera, although it isn’t wasn't allowed. Something to eat and to drink. My head. And enough money to buy his new CD.''
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→ Ein Text, der fast nur aus Ellipsen und Parataxen besteht, wirkt zwar schnell und wie eine Live-Reportage, ist aber doch schwer zu lesen.
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''Last Sunday it was sunny. The sky was without any clouds. It was perfect weather for an amazing open-air-concert of "The Rising Son of New Orleans".''
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''I had checked my bag, Camera, although it wasn't allowed to take one. I had something to eat and to drink. And I took enough money to buy his new CD.''
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→ S - V - O - zu jedem Satz gehört mindestens ein Subjekt und ein Verb. Besser als die Häufung von ''was'' und ''had'' wären andere, abwechslungsreichere Tätigkeitswörter.
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''Last Sunday the sun was shining and the sky was without any clouds. So it was perfect weather for an amazing open-air-concert of "The Rising Son of New Orleans".''
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''After I had packed something to eat and to drink and enough money to buy his new CD I checked my bag again: there was the camera, although it wasn't allowed to take one.''
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→ Aus sechs kurzen Sätzen wurden drei längere, die durch Konjunktionen und inhaltliche Bezüge besser zusammenpassen.
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{{Hinweis|
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When you join sentences together, use conjunctions - like however, although, moreover …! <br>
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Don't repeat "and" and "but" all the time.<br>
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However, don't start every second sentence with "therefore".}}
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{{clear}}
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== Interactive exercises ==
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=== Pocahontas (conjunctions) ===
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'''Put in the conjunctions:'''
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<div class="lueckentext-quiz" lang="en">
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<em>After</em> the English had settled in North America, John Smith began exploring the new country.
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<em>While</em> he was walking through the forest he encountered a beautiful girl, Pocahontas.
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<em>Initially</em> she was distrustful of him, <em>but</em> her grandmother liked him.
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<em>Eventually</em> she teaches him to hunt.
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She is set to be married to Tsu'Tey, a great warrior, <em> but</em> a serious man who Neytiri doesn't like at all.
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</div>
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??? - Who is Neytiri? - the story goes on but the characters have different names:
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=== Avatar ===
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'''Put in the conjunctions:'''
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<div class="lueckentext-quiz" lang="en">
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<em>As</em> the settlers prepare to attack, Jake is blamed by the Na'vi and sentenced to death.
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<em>Just before</em> they kill him,  they settlers arrive. Chief Eytucan is killed. John sustains injuries from Colonel Quaritch who is <em>then</em> shot with arrows.<br/>
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Neytiry risks her life to save Jake.
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Jake and Neytiri <em> finally</em> have each other and the two cultures resolve their differences.
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</div> 
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=== Connecting two sentences with a conjunction ===
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'''Put in the conjunctions:'''
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<div class="lueckentext-quiz" lang="en">
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<span style="font-weight:bold;">1.</span> It was very hot <em> so</em> I opened the window.
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<span style="font-weight:bold;">2.</span> I opened the window <em> because</em> it was hot.
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<span style="font-weight:bold;">3.</span> I wanted to phone you <em> but </em> I didn't have your number.
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<span style="font-weight:bold;">4.</span> I've been studying English <em> but </em> I'm not getting better.
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<span style="font-weight:bold;">5.</span> Shall we meet at home <em> or</em> in town?
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<span style="font-weight:bold;">6.</span> We met at home <em> and </em> (we) learned for the test.
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<span style="font-weight:bold;">7.</span> They like films <em> so </em> Mr Scharwies shows them more often.
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<span style="font-weight:bold;">8.</span> I usually don't study much <em> but</em> now I want to do more.
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</div>
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=== Connecting two sentences with a conjunction ===
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'''[[Use of English/Keyword Transformation|KEYWORD TRANSFORMATION]]'''
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<span style="font-weight:bold;">TASK</span><br/>
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Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the KEYWORD given.<br/>
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<span style="font-weight:bold;">Do not change</span> the KEYWORD.  You must use <span style="font-weight:bold;">between two and five words</span>, including the word given.
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<div class="lueckentext-quiz" lang="en">
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<span style="font-weight:bold;">1.</span>She wasn't very rich.  She gave money to the beggar.<span class="rechtsbuendig">ALTHOUGH</span>
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&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<em>Although she wasn't()</em> very rich she gave mponey to the beggar.
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<span style="font-weight:bold;">2.</span> He left early.  He wanted to arrive on time.  <span class="rechtsbuendig">SO THAT</span>
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&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;He left early<em> so that he arrived()</em> in time.
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<span style="font-weight:bold;">3.</span> You have to put the alarm on.  If not, it won't work. <span class="rechtsbuendig">UNLESS</span>
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&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <em>Unless you put()</em> the alarm on, it won't work.
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</div>
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<div class="lueckentext-quiz" lang="en">
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<span style="font-weight:bold;">4.</span> I don't earn a big salary.  But if I did, I wouldn't buy a car.<span class="rechtsbuendig"><abbr title="IF zeigt an, dass der folgende Satz ein If-Satz ist, dessen zweite Hälfte wouldn't buy als Verb hat.">EVEN IF</abbr></span>
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&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <em>Even if I earned()</em> a big salary, I wouldn't buy a car.
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<span style="font-weight:bold;">5.</span> Take a sandwich. There might be no restaurant.<span class="rechtsbuendig">IN CASE</span>
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&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Take a sandwich<em> in case there might()</em>be no restaurant.
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<span style="font-weight:bold;">6.</span>  There was a lot of noise.  He managed to sleep.<span class="rechtsbuendig">DESPITE</span>
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&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;  <em>Despite ()</em> being there a lot of noise, he managed to sleep.
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</div>
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<div class="lueckentext-quiz" lang="en">
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<span style="font-weight:bold;">7.</span> Sue likes Opera.  Joe prefers jazz. (They have different tastes.)<span class="rechtsbuendig">WHEREAS</span>
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&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Sue likes operea <em>whereas Joe prefers ()</em> jazz.
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<span style="font-weight:bold;">8.</span> The weather was bad.  They enjoyed the trip.<span class="rechtsbuendig">EVEN THOUGH</span>
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&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <em>Even though the waether was()</em> bad they enjoyed the trip.
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<span style="font-weight:bold;">9.</span> He had the flu.  He went to work.<span class="rechtsbuendig">IN SPITE OF</span>
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&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <em> In spite of ()</em> having the flu he went to work.
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</div>
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=== Change your Conjunctions ===
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'''Match the synonyms.'''
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<div class="zuordnungs-quiz" lang="en">
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<table>
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<tr><td>Because of that</td>
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                  <td>For this reason</td>
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                    <td>Due to</td>
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</tr>
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<tr><td>At last ...</td>
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<td>Finally</td>
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                    <td>Eventually</td>
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</tr>
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<tr>
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<td>After that</td>
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                    <td>consequentially</td>
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</tr>
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<tr>
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<td>Moreover</td>
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                    <td>Additionally</td>
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                    <td>Besides</td>
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</tr>
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<tr>
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<td>Meanwhile</td>
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                    <td>During this time</td>
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</tr>
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                <tr>
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                    <td>Then</td>
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                    <td>Secondly</td>
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                    <td>after a few hours</td>
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</tr>
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<tr>
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<td>however</td>
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                    <td>in contrast</td>
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                    <td>on the contrary</td>
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</tr>
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</table>
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</div>
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=== Linking words ===
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'''Tick the right linking word.'''
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<div class="multiplechoice-quiz" lang="en">
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1. You can come to the meeting ______ you don't say anything. (!so that)(as long as) (!while) (!until)
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2. I'm not leaving ______ I get an apology from you. (!so that) (!as long as) (!while) (until)
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3. I came here ______ you could give me an explanation. (so that) (!as long as) (!while) (!until)
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4. Patrick is very tall ______ Smurf is very short. (!so that) (!as long as) (while) (!as if)
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5. You look ______ you've seen a ghost. (!so that) (!as long as) (!while) (as if)
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6. I study for the exam today ______ I don't have to go tomorrow. (so that) (!as long as) (!until) (!as if)
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7. You look ______ you haven't eaten for a week. (!so that) (!as long as) (!until)(as if)
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8. I came early ______ I could talk to you privately. (so that) (!as long as) (!until) (!as if)
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</div>
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'''2. Tick the right linking word.'''
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<div class="multiplechoice-quiz" lang="en">
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1. ______ I don't think she's perfect for the job, she's certainly better qualified than Steve. (!so that) (while) (!until) (as if)
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2. Are you OK? You look ______ you have a problem. (!so that)(!as long as)(!while)(!until)(as if)
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3. I don't mind if you go out for lunch ______ you're back for the meeting at two.(!so that)(as long as)(!while)(!until)(!as if)
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4. ______ the job is very interesting, it's also very badly paid.(!so that)(!as long as)(while)(!until)(!as if)
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5. We'll go to the mountains on Saturday ______ it doesn't rain.(!so that)(as long as)(!while)(!until)(!as if)
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6. The winters here are very cold ______ the summers are very hot.(!so that)(!as long as)(while)(!until)(!as if)
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7. You can write the report when you want ______ it's ready by the end of the month.(!so that)(as long as)(!while)(!until)(!as if)
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8. It looks ______ the government has got a lot of problems.(!so that)(!as long as)(!while)(!until)(as if)
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</div> 
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'''3. Tick the right linking word.'''
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<div class="multiplechoice-quiz" lang="en">
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1. I want Mary to be in charge ______ I get back from holiday.(!so that)(!as long as)(!while)(until)(!as if)
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2. ______ I don't approve of what you did, I'm not going to punish you for it.(!so that)(!as long as)(while)(!until)(!as if)
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3. I'm learning English ______ I can get a better job.(so that)(!as long as)(!while)(!until)(!as if)
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</div> 
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{{Guided Writing}}
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== Weblinks ==
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* [https://www.onestopenglish.com/methodology/ask-the-experts/methodology-questions/methodology-coherence-and-cohesion/154867.article Methodology on Onestopenglish]
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* [https://www.tolearnenglish.com/exercises/exercise-english-1/exercise-english-332.php tolearnenglish.com]
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* [http://www.esoeonline.org/main-index/index-exercises/grammarexs/ www.esoeonline.org]
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* [http://www.better-english.com/grammar/conjunctions.htm www.better-english.com]
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* [http://www.dcielts.com/ielts-writing/cohesion-and-using-pronouns/ Cohesion and using pronouns] (DC IELTS)
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* [https://airport.unimelb.edu.au/gate2/writing/draft/cohesion.php Using pronouns for cohesion]
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